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Introducing the Judicial Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Friday, July 20, 2012

Introducing the Judicial Power of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Fardin Kharrazi
Senior Researcher in Law and Judicial Affairs

1. Status and Main Duties of the Judiciary

According to the well-recognized principle of “separation of powers,” the structure of government in the Islamic Republic of Iran consists of three independent powers; that is, the legislative power, the executive power, and the Judiciary power, all of which work under direct supervision of the Supreme Leader.(1) Meanwhile, the main duty of the Judiciary, as an independent power is to protect personal and social rights of all people and also to establish and promote justice in the society (2). On the whole, duties of the Iranian Judiciary have been divided under five general headings:

A) Hearing People’s Disputes and Complains and Handing Down Appropriate Verdicts: Since petition and taking legal action are inalienable rights of any person, everybody can refer to a competent court to file a lawsuit, all Iranian people are entitled to have access to such courts, and no one can be denied of their legal right to refer to court (4). This inalienable right of the people makes it a duty of the Judiciary to hear people’s lawsuits and dispense justice. Meanwhile, all courts of law are duty-bound to see into all kinds of complaints filed by all Iranian people and hand down a verdict (5).

B) Restoring Public Rights as well as Promoting Justice and Legitimate Freedoms: The Judiciary is obligated to take full advantage of its independence when defending people’s rights and prevent any violation of the rights and freedoms which have been projected by enacted laws. It must also try to protect these rights and freedoms by prosecuting, bringing to trial, and punishing those violators who encroach upon the rights and freedoms of people. Many articles of the Iranian constitution have enumerated various rights and freedoms of people and emphasized on their realization.

C) Supervising Proper Implementation of the Laws: Since the executive managers must carry out enacted laws in the best possible manner in order to make sure about public satisfaction with the laws, the Judiciary is obligated to supervise proper implementation of those laws.

The Judiciary fulfills its supervisory duty in the following ways:

C.1. In their court hearings, judges presiding over court sessions will prosecute, try and punish all persons who have violated laws in any post and position.

C.2. The Supreme Court will supervise accurate and complete implementation of laws in courts.

C.3. The Court of Administrative Justice sees into people’s complaints against state-run organizations and agencies.

C.4. The General Inspection Organization inspects all state-run organizations as well as other bodies and institutions run by the government and will refer all cases of violation or breach of laws to relevant administrative and judicial authorities.

D) Discovering Crime and Prosecution and Punishment of Criminals: When a crime has taken place, judicial agents (police and investigative judges) start identification, prosecution and apprehension of criminal(s), open and complete a file, and build a judicial case for official hearing which is then submitted to the court of law for a verdict. When the verdict is handed down and finalized, the punishment is administered by the same branch of the Judiciary which has investigated the case from the scratch.

E) Preventing Crime and Correcting Criminals: In this area, preventive and correctional steps are taken to reduce crime rate and prevent crimes from happening. In addition, any necessary effort to correct criminals and rehabilitate them and get them ready for a safe return to a healthy life in the society is among the main duties of the Iranian Judiciary.

It goes without saying that fulfilling this set of duties in the best possible form by the judicial power can lead to establishment and promotion of true justice in the society.

2. Independence of the Judiciary

If the judicial power is to be successful in protecting people’s rights, promoting justice, as well as prosecuting and punishing criminals and offenders, it should be totally independent of the other two branches of government, that is, the Executive and the Legislature. The Judiciary should also be allowed to do its job while being immune to any kind of external pressure. Therefore, the independence of the judicial power has been defined in two main areas: A) organizational independence; and B) independence of judges.

A) Organizational Independence: To make legally sure about independence of the Judiciary from the other two executive and legislative powers and to prevent the other two powers from influencing the Judiciary’s decisions, the following legal mechanisms have been thought of:

A.1. The head of the judicial power is directly appointed by the Supreme Leader (6).

A.2. Administrative affairs and employment of judges and other personnel of the Judiciary are totally independent of other branches of the government (7).

A.3. Judicial cases are opened and closed within the Judiciary. Also, judicial decisions are made with total independence without the executive and legislative bodies having anything to do or the power to challenge those decisions.

A.4. The Court of Administrative Justice and General Inspection Organization are subsidiary bodies of the Judiciary which are missioned to investigate people’s complaints of state-run bodies and stage agents and also have the power to supervise correct implementation of laws by the Executive.

A.5. One of the most prominent features of the Iranian Judiciary is that it can prosecute parliament deputies for ordinary crimes. It can also do the same in the case of the executive officials as high as the president himself and bring them to justice (8).

B) Independence of Judges: In addition to organizational independence of the Judiciary as a whole, the Iranian judicial system also puts special emphasis on impartiality and behavioral independence of individual judges. The judges should embark on taking a decision merely on the basis of legal norms and their own logical analysis away from any pressure or influence from the outside. The verdicts handed down by courts should be logical and documented based on articles of law and principles which form the foundation of judicial decisions (9). In the meantime, the judges should by no means allow for their personal interests or tendencies to get in the way. This means that they should try to find a verdict in enacted laws for the subject of any case. If no relevant law can be found, they must draw on creditable Islamic texts or creditable fatwas by Muslim jurists to give a verdict on a case. Therefore, they can never reject a case or refrain from investigating a case and handing down a verdict under the pretext that there are no relevant laws or there are conflicts among the existing laws (10).

To make doubly sure about independence of the judges, the laws have seen that no judge can be dismissed from his job, either permanently or temporarily, without due process of law and before their violation has been proven at court. The area in which a judge serves cannot be easily changed unless through tough formalities and a decision by head of the Judiciary which he would make after consulting with head of the Supreme Court and the attorney general (11).

On the other hand, the laws have seen that in case a judge or his wife and children and other relatives have vested interest in a case, that judge will be barred from hearing that case.(12)

Another point thought of to guarantee independence of judges is that they are required to avoid of implementing state decisions or bylaws which are against the Islamic rules and regulations or fall outside the jurisdiction and powers of the Executive. In such cases, the Court of Administrative Justice can overrule executive decisions (13).

Finally, if a party to a lawsuit comes to material or spiritual loss as a result of oversight or mistake made by a judge during investigation of a case, they will be entitled to judicial redress. Even when the state makes a mistake, subsequent losses to the damaged party will be compensated (14).

By combining organizational independence of the Judiciary and behavioral independence of the judges, as envisaged by the Iranian laws, one will come to the conclusion that the judicial system of Iran is one of a kind among judicial systems across the world because its position and decisions are quite independent of the Executive with the latter power having no sway or influence over judicial decisions in any way.

3. Judiciary’s Relationship with the Executive and the Legislature

The Minister of Justice is responsible for coordinating and regulating relations of the Judiciary with the Executive and the Legislature. According to the Iranian constitution, “The Minister of Justice is responsible for all affairs related to the Judiciary’s relations with the Executive and the Legislature, and is chosen out of persons introduced to the President by the head of the Judiciary…(15).” After the president and the head of the judicial power reach an agreement on the minister of justice, the proposed person, like other members of the cabinet, will be introduced to the parliament for a vote of confidence and will start official activities after winning such a vote. Therefore, the minister of justice is a person on whom all three branches of the government have reached an agreement.

The most important issues which pertain to the Judiciary’s relations with the other two branches of the government and which should be regulated by the minister of justice are as follows:

A) Preparing judicial bills by the Judiciary and submitting them to the parliament for final approval and enactment as law. In this regard, the minister of justice receives the bill prepared by the Judiciary and forwards it to the parliament following necessary coordination with the executive power (the cabinet). When the bill is being discussed on the parliament floor, the minister provides lawmakers with necessary explanation and defends the contents of the bill.

B) Since the cabinet (the executive power) is responsible for preparing annual budget bill and submitting it to the Islamic Consultative Assembly for approval, that part of the budget bill which reflects on the annual budget of the judicial power is prepared by minister of justice, under supervision of the head of the Judiciary. The minister is also responsible for defending the Judiciary’s budget both in front of the cabinet and on the parliament floor.
Of course, the head of the Judiciary can delegate his powers with regard to financial and administrative affairs of the Judiciary and employing judicial staff (except for the judges) to minister of justice (16). In that case, the minister of justice will play the role of the executive deputy to the head of the Judiciary.

4. Structure of Judicial Organization and Legal Procedure in Iran

The Iranian constitution has depicted organizational structure of the country’s judicial system in the following manner:

A. Head of the Judiciary: He is the highest ranking judicial, administrative, and executive official in the Iranian Judiciary who is selected out of just Muslim jurists (mujtahids), who is well aware of judicial affairs in addition to having good management skills and is appointed to the post by the Supreme Leader for a period of five years (17). His duties include:

A.1. Creating the necessary organization as well as suitable judicial units to improve and develop the Judiciary’s activities;

A.2. To prepare bills on judicial affairs and submit them to the parliament by minister of justice; and

A.3. Employment of just and worthy judges, their dismissal, appointment, transfer, their assignment to particular duties, promotions, and the carrying out of similar administrative duties (18).

B. The Supreme Court: The Supreme Court has been established to supervise performance of courts of law for correct implementation of laws and to create a uniform judicial procedure among all courts and to fulfill other duties assigned to it by law (19).

The Court consists of a number of prominent and experienced judges who are both jurists (mujtahid) and also enjoy, at least, ten years of successful and excellent experience in judicial and legal matters. Head of the Supreme Court is appointed by the head of the Judiciary through consultation with the Court’s judges from among just jurists with specialty in judicial affairs for a period of five years.

The Supreme Court is a high-ranking judicial institution which is addition to supervising performance of courts and introducing a uniform procedure, can put the President to trial and hand down a ruling in cases that the chief executive does not fulfill his legal duties, thus, paving the way for impeachment and removal of the President from his post after obtaining the agreement of the Supreme Leader (20). Also, in case of differences among various courts over their competence to investigate a case, the Supreme Court will have the legal authority to settle such disputes (21).

C. Public Courts: Public courts are courts of law with competence for judicial investigation and dispensing justice in all kinds of the judicial cases. The multiplicity and diversity of lawsuits and differences in the nature of investigation and judgment has caused public courts to be divided into two general categories of civil public courts and criminal public courts.

C.1. Civil public courts see into legal (civil) cases such as family-related, financial, and contractual disputes as well as cases pertaining to inheritance and similar issues. They have branches across the country. Civil public courts are usually presided over by a judge or his substitute and all measures as well as investigations are carried out by them according to civil procedure act. Making the final decision, however, is a duty for the presiding judge.

Some select branches of civil public courts specifically hear family-related cases which are known as family courts. In these branches, there is a female judicial assistant on the side of the presiding judge who submits her judicial opinion to the judge before he issues the final verdict.

C.2. Criminal public courts hear criminal cases. These courts convene their sessions under the presiding judge or his substitute when the main judge is absent. Preliminary investigation as well as prosecution and apprehension of the accused, interrogation, and completion of the case take place at the prosecutor’s office. After the indictment is issued, the case is forwarded to a criminal public court. If the crime is proven, a proportionate verdict for the punishment of the criminal is handed down. If the crime is not proven, the judge rules for the acquittal of the accused. Some branches of criminal public courts are special to specific crimes such as children’s offenses, economic crimes and crimes perpetrated by civil servants.

Criminal courts can be found in all cities and their verdicts can be appealed at the same city’s higher criminal court. Of course, in cases of major crimes which entail capital punishment or life imprisonment, primary hearing will be held at a provincial criminal court which is usually attended by three to five judges. Its verdicts, however, can only be appealed at the Supreme Court.

D. Specialized Courts: In addition to public courts, the legal system of the Islamic Republic of Iran has envisaged three kinds of specialized courts for special cases which include:

D.1. Military courts which hear cases related to special crimes committed by members of the armed forces (22). Such crimes include leaking military secrets, desertion, disobeying military commands and such cases which, by nature, cannot be committed by the civilians. Of course, if the military personnel commit general and ordinary crimes which have nothing to do with their rank and professional duties, they will be tried like all other citizens at public courts. The military courts have their own rules and procedures according to which crimes that may entail long prison sentences equal to or more than ten years -- or even execution -- are heard by the first-grade military courts. Second-grade military courts hear cases which may require less severe punishments (23).

D.2. The Islamic Revolution were created soon after victory of the Islamic Revolution in line with requirements of the revolutionary society and are competent to investigate a vast variety of crimes. Crimes related to domestic and foreign security of the Islamic Republic, taking armed action against the Islamic establishment (muhariba), disseminating corruption on the Earth, insulting the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran Imam Khomeini and the Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, conspiring against the Islamic Republic, armed action against the Islamic establishment, assassination and destruction of institutes, espionage, crimes related to smuggling and drug trafficking and some other crimes are within the competence of the Islamic Revolution courts. Such courts usually hear cases in provincial capitals and in any other part of the country which is deemed necessary the head of the Judiciary.

D.3. Special Court for the Clergy is simply missioned to hear cases against people of the cloth in order to prevent infiltration of corrupt persons in religious seminaries, protect the dignity of the clergy, and punish criminal clerics. The Special Court for the Clergy and related prosecutors’ offices are under direct supervision of the Supreme Leader.

E. Prosecutor’s Office: A prosecutor’s office has been there in parallel to every branch of a criminal public court which is tasked with finding crime, prosecuting criminals, filing lawsuit, indicting the accused, and enforcing the verdict once it has been handed down through the court’s decision. A prosecutor tops such an office and he is usually provided with necessary number of deputies, assistants, interrogators, and the relevant administrative system.

When a crime is of personal quality, the prosecutor’s office kicks off the process of investigations after the plaintiff has filed his/her lawsuit. In public crimes, the prosecutor, as direct representative of the society, embarks on preparing an indictment for submission to the court in advance of the trial.

In Iran's judicial system, the prosecutor has many duties as well as important and vast responsibilities in his own judicial sphere. The attorney general tops the hierarchy of prosecutors. He is chosen by the head of the Judiciary out of prominent jurists and has good knowledge of judicial affairs.

F. Dispute Settlement Councils: In order to reduce the number of cases that are referred to courts and also to facilitate hearing of minor cases related to the ordinary people, the Iranian law has envisaged dispute settlement councils, whose number is currently more than 9,000 across the country. They are present in all small and big cities in order to settle minor disputes and bring involved parties to reconciliation under direct supervision of the Judiciary. Each council has three main and two substitute members and, at least, one of them should be a competent judge. Members of the council are chosen out of locals with good reputation who are trusted by people for their honesty and strong religious faith. Their activities are totally voluntary (25).

5. Court of Administrative Justice: Guarantor of the nation’s rights in the face of state-run organizations

Daily relations between various people and state-run administrative bodies will be more assuring and fair if administrative officials consider themselves duty-bound to follow injunctions of laws in their administrative capacities and avoid of doing anything against those laws. Therefore, the Iranian constitution has considered a judicial institution known as the Court of Administrative Justice which works under direct supervision of the head of the Judiciary and whose duty is to hear people’s complaints and protests against state agents or agencies and to oversee correct implementation of their bylaws (26).

The Court has many branches each with a head and a substitute member who enjoy high specialized and ethical qualifications. Traditionally, the head of the first branch of the Court has also been the head of the Court of Administrative Justice. He can have as many deputies and advisors as he needs. The Court of Administrative Justice has also many appeals branches each with a head and two advisors (27).

Competencies of the Court of Administrative Justice can be divided in four major categories:

1. Hearing people’s complaints and protests about decisions made and measures taken by state officials, state-run offices and institutions, as well as state bylaws and regulations which have caused them material or spiritual losses.

2. Hearing civil servants complaints and lawsuits against decisions made by administrative courts, inspection boards, and specialized commissions for being in violation of enacted laws and regulations.

3. Creating a uniform judicial procedure for hearing administrative cases by general board of the Court.

4. Annulment of state regulations which contravene customary and religious laws: Article 170 of the Iranian constitution has given this mission to the Court of Administrative Justice where it says, “Judges are obliged to refrain from enforcing the government’s decrees and regulations that are in conflict with Islamic laws and norms, or which lie outside the competence of the Executive. Everyone has a duty to demand the annulment of any such regulation from the Court of Administrative Justice.”

Pursuant to this constitutional article: 1. If there is a complaint about contravention between certain state decisions and bylaws, and the Islamic regulations, the Court of Administrative Justice is duty-bound to refer the complaint to the Guardian Council. If the Guardian Council rules, in accordance with Article 4 of the constitution, that the contravention with the Sharia (religious) law actually exists, the Court of Administrative Justice will overrule that state decision or bylaw. 2. If the complaint is about contradiction between state laws, regulations, or measures which exceed the limits of the Executive’s powers, the case will be brought up in the general board of the Court of Administrative Justice. If majority of the board members rule in favor of the complaint, the subject of the complaint will be annulled (28).

6. General Inspection Organization: Supervising good state of affairs and correct implementation of laws

Supervising the proper enforcement of laws is one of the main duties of the Iranian Judiciary (29). As said before, supervising the proper enforcement of laws at courts of law is a duty for the Supreme Court. As for supervision over conduction of affairs at administrative organs and non-judicial state-run organizations, the Iranian constitution has stipulated that “an organization to be known as the General Inspection Organization will be constituted under the supervision of the Head of the Judiciary….” (30) The main duties of that organization include:

A. Continuous and periodical inspection of all ministries, administrative organs, police and other disciplinary forces, state-run institutes and companies, municipalities and related institutes, public notaries, non-profit institutes, revolutionary institutions, and organizations part or all of whose capital and stocks belong to the government or are, one way or another, under supervision of or receiving aid from the state.

B. Conducting extraordinary inspections following the order of the Supreme Leader or the head of the Judiciary as well as upon the request of the president or the requests submitted by the Islamic Consultative Assembly, various ministers, and heads of state-run organizations.

C. Reporting violations and insufficiencies as well as financial and administrative problems to relevant authorities. In cases where judicial hearing is needed, those cases should be sent to courts, which will be then heard on an urgent basis and without waiting their turn (31).

7. Some of the Most Important Principles of Legal Procedure in the Judicial System of Iran

A. The principle that Trials at Court should be Open and Emphasis on the Openness of all Trials for Political and Press Charges in Presence of a Qualified Jury: The constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran has stipulated that “Trials are to be held openly and members of the public may attend without any restriction unless the court considers an open trial to be contrary to public morality or law and order, or when requested by both parties in a civil dispute.” (32)

There are two major reasons behind the emphasis on openness of trials. Firstly, open trials will make it possible for people to continuously supervise judicial hearings and will, thus, greatly guarantee healthy proceedings at courts. Secondly, open trials are also useful for enlightening people and building culture. That is, witnessing the fate of criminals and violators of law will increase legal information of other people while teaching them lessons which may lead to reduction in the overall incidence of crimes and offenses in the society.

However, in addition to emphasizing on the need to hold trials in the open, there are exceptional cases in which an open court may be against national security or general peace in the society (like when hearing espionage or military cases) or there are cases which deal with the honor of a family or dignity of people and may also harm society’s ethical standards. In such instances, the law has allowed the judge to hold the trial behind closed doors after providing powerful and documented reasons in favor of his decision. Also, in certain private cases, such as familial cases or financial ones which are not directly related to the interests of the general public, if the two sides ask for a closed trial, that demand will be respected and granted by the court officials.

Of course, hearing political and press charges should always be in the open and in presence of a jury (33). Even the above exceptions are not acceptable in these cases. Political crime means a criminal act committed in order to topple a political and social system or to interrupt political management of a country and harm its government. Of course, such a crime may or may not be accompanied with other kinds of general, social, or security crimes (34).

Major press charges include insult, libel, threat, disclosure of personal secrets of ordinary people as well as political and religious authorities, inciting unrest and sabotage, disclosing state secrets,  insulting Islam as well as religious and national sanctities, and damaging public ethics by publishing articles, photos, films, etc. through the mass communication media.

Therefore, in cases of political offenses when the government or state officials are a party to the lawsuit, in order to make sure that justice is dispensed correctly and without discrimination toward the defendants, and in case of press charges in which the criminal act has been committed in public, trials should be open and attended by a jury.

B. The Principle of Equality of all People before the Law and the Court: According to the Iranian constitution, “It is the indisputable right of every citizen to seek justice by recourse to competent courts. All citizens have right of access to such courts, and no one may be barred from courts to which he has a lawful right of recourse. (35)” Even the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran is equal to other people in the country before the law (36).

In all trials, both parties are entitled to be represented and if they are unable to appoint an attorney to defend them, the court will provide them with counsel (37).

C. The Principle of Observing due Process in Hearing Cases and Dispensing Punishment: The Iranian judicial system has clearly stipulated that nobody can be arrested except by the order of and in accordance with the procedure laid down by law. In case of arrest, the charges along with the grounds for accusation must be communicated without delay and explained in writing to the accused, and a provisional dossier must be forwarded to the competent judicial authorities within a maximum of twenty-four hours so that the preliminaries of the trial can be completed as soon as possible. Violation of this article will be liable to penal action in accordance with law (38). Also, only competent courts are entitled to pass a sentence and execute it in accordance with law (39). The Iranian law has emphasized that the verdicts of courts must be well-reasoned and documented with reference to the articles and clauses of law on which they are based (40). In addition, no act of commission or omission may be regarded as a crime with retrospective effect on the basis of a law framed subsequently (41). Moreover, affronts, in whatever form, to the dignity and repute of persons arrested, detained, imprisoned, or banished, in accordance with law, are forbidden and liable to punishment (42).

D. The Principle of Innocence: The Iranian judicial system presumes that everybody is innocent unless proven otherwise and no one is to be held guilty of a charge unless his/her guilt has been proved in a competent court (43).

E. The Principle of Prohibition of Torture: All forms of torture for the purpose of extracting confessions or acquiring information are forbidden. It is not permissible to compel individuals to testify, confess, or take an oath. Any testimony, confession, or oath obtained under duress is devoid of value and credence (44).

In conclusion, the judicial system of the Islamic Republic of Iran has provided a set of vast contextual and formative mechanisms which aim to promote and realize “justice” in the society as the greatest ideal of all human societies.

Bibliography & Endnotes

1. Article 57 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
2. Article 156 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
3. Ibid.
4. Article 34 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
5. Article 167 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
6. Article 157 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
7. Para. 3, Article 158 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
8. Para. 10, Article 110 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
9. Article 166 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
10. Article 167 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
11. Article 164 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
12. Article 46 of the Procedure Act
13. Article 170 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
14. Article 171 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
15. Article 160 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
16. Article 160 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
17. Article 157 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
18. Article 158 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
19. Article 161 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
20. Para. 10, Article 110 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
21. Articles 22, 28, and 30; and the Note under Article 27 of the Procedure Act for Public and Revolutionary Courts
22. Article 172 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
23. Articles 2 & 3 of the Procedure Act of the Armed Forces
24. Article 1 of the Bylaw of Prosecutors’ Offices and the Special Court for the Clergy which was approved by the Supreme Leader on August 5, 1989.
25. The Law for the Establishment of Dispute Settlement Councils; passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly on May 18, 2008.
26. Article 173 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
27. The Court of Administrative Justice Act approved on January 24, 1982, and its later amendments
28. Article 25 of the Court of Administrative Justice Act
29. Para. 3, Article 156 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
30. Article 174 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
31. The Law for the Establishment of General Inspection Organization, approved on October 11, 1981, and the law for amending this law approved on July 28, 1996
32. Article 165 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
33. Article 168 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
34. Dr. Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Basic Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran; Vol. 2, 5th Ed., Tehran, Dadgostar Press, p. 469
35. Article 34 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
36. This part can be found under Article 107 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
37. Article 35 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
38. Article 32 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
39. Article 36 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
40. Article 166 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
41. Article 169 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
42. Article 39 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
43. Article 37 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution
44. Article 38 of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution

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