Turkamanchai Treaty after 188 Years

Monday, February 22, 2016

Abstract: Treaty of Torkamanchai (also Turkmenchay) dated 1828, agreement signed by Russia and Persia at the village of Turkmanchai (Torkaman), East Azarbaijan province., NW Iran. It concluded the Russo-Persian war that had begun in 1825 and forced Persia to cede part of Persian Armenia to Russia and to grant extraterritorial rights.

The Torkamanchai treaty (also written Turkmanchai, Turkemanchay, Turkamanchay, and Turkmanchay) is a treaty by which Iran lost many of its northern territories to Russia after its defeat in 1828, bringing an end to the second Russo-Persian wars (1827-1828).

The treaty was signed on February 21, 1828, by Haj Mirza Abol-hasan Khan and Asef ul-dowleh, chancellor of Fath Ali Shah from Iran's side, and General Ivan Paskievich representing Russia.

As was the case for the Gulistan Treaty, Iran was forced to sign the treaty by Russia, as it had no other alternative after Abbas Mirza's defeat. The Russian general had threatened Fath Ali Shah to conquer Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed.

By this treaty:

1- By Article 4 of the treaty, Iran loses sovereignty over Yerevan (current capital of Armenia), Nakhichevan, Talysh, Ordubad, and Mughan regions of Arran Province (now part of modern Azerbaijan Republic), in addition to all lands annexed by Russia in the Gulistan Treaty.

2- The Aras river is assigned the new borderline between Iran and Russia, from "from Arrarat ghal'eh to the outlet of the river at Astara".

3- By Article 6 of the treaty, Iran promised to pay Russia 10 Koroor in Gold (in 1828 currency).

4- By Article 8 of the treaty, Iranian ships lose full rights to navigate all of the Caspian Sea and her coasts, henceforth given to Russia.

5- Iran recognizes Capitulation rights for Russians in Iran.

6- By Article 10, Russia gains the right to send consulate envoys to anywhere in Iran it wishes.

7- By Article 13, Exchange of POWs.

8- By Article 10, Iran is forced to sign economic treaties with Russia as Russia specifies.

9- By Article 7 of the treaty, Russia promises to support Abbas Mirza as the heir to the throne of Persia after Fath Ali Shah dies.

10- Iran officially apologizes for breaking its promises made in the Gulistan Treaty.

11- By Article 15, Fath Ali Shah promises not to prosecute any Khanate secessionist movements in the north-western region.

Iran officially sees this and the preceding Gulistan Treaty as one of Iran's most humiliating treaties ever signed. The treaty is also regarded by Iranians as the main reason why Fath Ali Shah is seen as one of Iran's most incompetent rulers in memory.

Source: The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS)

*Photo Credit: Wikipedia

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