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Nuclear Negotiations with P5+1 Group and Geneva Agreement

Sunday, February 23, 2014

Author: Mohammad Hassan Daryaei

Paperback: 284 pages
Publisher: Ettelaat Newspaper (February 2014)
Language: Persian
ISBN: 978-964-423-927-4

Introduction

The nuclear negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 group of world powers have become one of the most important issues in international politics. This is also the most important issue related to Iran's foreign policy. As a result, news and reports covering these negotiations and analytical reports covering their various aspects has become one of the main concerns for the Iranian people and politicians alike. During the past few months, different print media and internet websites following various kinds of political tendencies have shown a spectrum of different reactions to the Geneva agreement. These reactions have varied from strong support and all-out backing to raising questions about the agreement, criticizing it, or totally undermining the Geneva deal. The main question, therefore, is what is the reality?

To answer this question, the author has decided to conduct a painstaking expert analysis of Geneva Joint Plan of Action regardless of various political approaches that have been so far taken to that agreement. “Nuclear Negotiations with P5+1 Group and Geneva Agreement,” has been, as such, written to carefully elucidate all technical, legal and political aspects of the Geneva agreement. The approach adopted by the author is scientific neutrality when gathering various viewpoints related to different issues pertaining to the Geneva agreement in order to put the readers in a better position to judge its text. The book, therefore, takes an overarching approach to various aspects of Geneva Joint Plan of Action while exploring various technical, legal and political aspects of that agreement.

Book Chapters

The book consists of ten chapters. The first chapter contains the introduction and foreword, in addition to the general goals of the book and the main questions that it is supposed to answer. In the second chapter, the viewpoints of Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei on different nuclear issues have been sorted according to a topical order. In this chapter, the Leader’s fatwa (religious decree) about religious prohibition on production of nuclear weapons has been put forth. In addition, the Leader’s views on other relevant subjects such as disarmament, nonproliferation, peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear negotiations at various junctures have been delineated.

The third chapter focuses on a legal discussion about the international law and the nuclear energy. In this chapter, the fundaments of states’ right to peaceful use of nuclear energy in accordance with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Safeguards Agreement, as well as NPT review documents have been analyzed and studied through an in-depth, academic approach. In addition, various aspects of the nuclear right of all countries, the international procedures followed by various countries in this regard, the advisory opinions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on nuclear weapons, efforts made by the Western countries to restrict the right of non-nuclear member states of the NPT, as well as legal fundaments of enrichment right according to the NPT, and documents pertaining to the NPT review conferences and the Safeguards Agreement have been discussed from a legal viewpoint in this chapter. Moreover, a legal discussion has been also provided on various dimensions of the countries’ nuclear right. The discussion covers the way that this right should be enforced as well as issues related to it and the amount of impact that realization of this right will have on the concept of ownership of the right. It has been also pointed out that imposing restrictions on countries for enforcing their right will not mean that they have been stripped of that right. Further in this chapter, the situation of Geneva Joint Plan of Action has been explored through a legal approach with respect to Iran's right to enrich uranium on its right. Here, Iran's obligations emanating from accepting the NPT and their impact on the country’s right to enrich uranium on its soil have been also discussed in more depth.

In the fourth chapter, the author has reviewed the fundaments of Iran's need to nuclear energy where it has been proven that Iran's nuclear energy program is an energy-based program necessitated by the objective needs of the country. As a result, it has been pursued by all the Iranian administrations as a matter of national necessity and even the type of the government has not been influential in nuclear activities of Iran as such activities actually began before the Islamic Revolution. The next part of this chapter gives a brief history of efforts made in Iran both before and after the Islamic Revolution in order to achieve nuclear energy.

In the fifth chapter, the general process of negotiations with the world powers, whose latest result has been the formulation of Geneva Joint Plan of Action, has been discussed with no regard for common media hype. The original text of relevant documents have been provided in this chapter, which has cast a careful look at the true nature of Iran's nuclear negotiations as well as Geneva Joint Plan of Action.

In the sixth chapter, questions and ambiguities related to structure and the method of negotiations that led to Geneva Joint Plan of Action have been put forth and discussed by reviewing the viewpoints of both opponents and proponents.

Chapter seven takes a legal and technical approach to exploring Geneva Joint Plan of Action and reflects on the details of the nuclear content of the agreement. It also discusses various viewpoints of both opponents and proponents about the impact of Geneva Joint Plan of Action on nuclear infrastructure of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

In chapter eight, the main focus is on the removal of anti-Iran sanctions as well as other concessions given to Iran by the West. In this chapter, once again, the viewpoint of the opponents and proponents have been put forth and every effort has been made to make it easier for readers to judge those views away from any bias or prejudgment and simply on the basis of an accurate legal approach based on the available documents.

Chapter nine discusses international and regional effects of the Geneva agreement through a neutral approach which has its roots in political realities in international arena.

The last and the tenth chapter contains appendices on Geneva Joint Plan of Action.

Conclusion

The author believes that the resistance of the noble Iranian nation has finally borne fruit and the West, having known about and admitted to indomitability of the great nation of Iran, has been forced to give up its maximum demands which had been already announced through the resolutions adopted by the United Nations Security Council. As a result, the Western states have had to sit at the negotiating table with the Islamic Republic of Iran in order to find a mutually satisfactory solution to Iran's nuclear issue. Therefore, the Geneva agreement and the negotiation process leading to it are both of high importance. This is a continuous and long-term process. As a result, the present book takes a professional approach based on expert information to the Geneva agreement. It has also avoided exaggeration both when criticizing and supporting the agreement. The text has both taken into account the questions raised by the critics, and put forth the viewpoints of the proponents of the agreement. As a result, the book takes a multidimensional approach to this issue and while paying due attention to importance of critical views in this regard, aims to provide grounds for the promotion of the culture of criticism and accountability. This will enable critics to pay attention to other viewpoints, in addition to their own critical views, and while respecting all the existing views, leave the final judgment to the readers who take both negative and positive views into account.

About the Author

Dr. Mohammad Hassan Daryaei is one of the prominent Iranian experts and researchers in the field of disarmament  and International security. He has worked on these issues for 20 years and has written numerous books and articles about them.

طراحی و توسعه آگاه‌سیستم