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August 19th, 1953 Coup

Monday, August 19, 2013

Ibrahim Hadidi

From the very beginning of the Mossadeq’s taking the power in his hands and nationalization of oil industry, the thoughts to launch a coup and military intervention in Iran were played by some of British circles. However, the solidarity and cohesion of the pro nationalization groups and the early opposition of the US government to this project, delayed the realization of it.

Through setting off their espionage network and seeping into the national and religious organizations by the British, and the Eisenhower’s being elected as the US president, and fearing the expansion of the Soviet influence, the schemes were planned to carry out a military coup by CIA in Iran.

The coup plan was named T.P. Ajax and Kermit Roosevelt left for Iran to handle the affairs; the British called it the Boot operations and sent Christopher Woodhouse to carry out their plans. The secret network of Shahpur Reporter and Assadollah Alam and the Rashidian Brothers supported by the British Rochild family were engaged in a series of activities called Bedaman. Their main task was to create a state of disorder, unrest and plunder.

Various demonstrations held by the Tudeh Party, appointment of major general Zahedi as the minister of interior, dubious presence of Shams Qanatabadi in Ayatollah Kashani’s residence, the murder of Afshartus, and many other events set the scene for Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, enjoying the support of the US and the British governments, to depose the prime minister, Mossaddeq, and Colonel Nassiri had the mission to deliver the firman to Mossadeq, but he was arrested by colonel Momtaz and the coup was foiled; the Shah made his escape from Iran accompanied by Sorayya Isfandiari, Mohammad Khatami (as pilot) and Aboulfath Atabay to Iraq and then to Italy.

Again, in the 19th of August those involved in the coup project took advantage of the inactivity and confusion of the government (despite its having been informed of the coup through a letter sent to him by Ayatollah Kashani), and the armed forces accompanied by the hooligans and rascals poured into the Tehran streets and brought Mossaddeq’s cabinet into end in the afternoon of the very day. The prime minister surrendered with some of his cabinet members, and major general Zahedi became the minister of coup and three days later Mohammad Reza Pahlavi returned to his throne.

Documents:

Zahra Abbasi

Dr. Mossadegh's government, in the second period of its thirty-month government, from June 1952 encountered with a variety of conspiracy, seizures and street clashes. 19th August coup put an end to the life of Mossadegh's national government. And regardless of financial and economic losses, it was a great blow to Iran's process of democracy and civil society and prevailed despotism and oppression in the country's for 25 years.

The important events of this period includs: cut off diplomatic relations between Iran and Britain, dispute between Dr. Mossadegh and Ayatollah Kashani and some influential members of the National Front on the bill to extend the powers of Mossadegh, the Shah's cancelling his decision to travel abroad and the murder of Brigadier Afshartus.

Kermit Roozwelt was in charge of carrying the coup plan and overthrow of Dr. Mossaddeq's government

Following the dissolution of seventeenth parliament approved through a referendum that Mossadegh put it to people's vote, Colonel Nasiri who was ordered by Zahedi, the prime minister appointed by the Shah, to deliver the verdict indicating Mossadegh's removal from his office, was arrested with his persons and equipment. The Shah and Soraya headed to Baghdad fearfully. The wave of protests and people's happiness on days 17th and 18th August were followed, but 19th August the page turned and the house of national leader went under destruction and plunder, and he himself was put to trial and was sentenced to three years imprisonment and was exiled to Ahmadabad village until the end of his life.

1 - News Summary of Foreign News Agencies about remarks made by George Middleton the British charge d'affaires in Iran on Mossadegh decision to cut off diplomatic relations with England, the British evacuating their place within two weeks [5-118-27] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2306&img_cat=142&img_type=1

2 - News Summary of the Associated Press about Iran's charge d' affaires in London, Mohammad Hajeb Davallu's action in informing the British government of the Iranian government's decision to break with that country [5-293-8] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2307&img_cat=142&img_type=1

3 - Telegram by Seyyed Morteza Passandideh (from Khomein) to the Prime Minister, Dr. Mossadegh about declaring public holidays in that town in support of his government and strike in the telegraph house until the parliament issued a vote of confidence for his government [5-19-543] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2308&img_cat=142&img_type=1

4 - Foreign news summary of Press Trust of London about the decision of representatives of Majliss to sit in the House of Representatives for final decision about the bill to extend the powers requested by the Prime Minister [5-208-72] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2309&img_cat=142&img_type=1

5 - Foreign News summary by the United Press of London about the bill to extend the authorities of the prime minister for one year and the resignation of Dr. Mossadegh in case the bill was not extended [5-208-71] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2310&img_cat=142&img_type=1

6 - Foreign news summary of Press Trust of London, regarding Ayatollah Kashani's opposition to the prime minister, Dr. Mossadegh's request for extending the authorities of prime minister and considering it as an unlawful act [5-208-78] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2311&img_cat=142&img_type=1

7 - Letter by Ayatollah Kashani to Mohammad Reza Shah appealing him to revise his travel plan due to the country's unfavorable political situation [M 144-37-9] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2312&img_cat=142&img_type=1

8 - Note by the Minister of court, Hussein Ala on Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's leaving for abroad on 28th February and his actions on the following points: 1. His attempt to conceal the news of this trip, 2. Ambiguous answer to the U.S. ambassador on the king's travel news, 3.The Shah's surprise at the parade in front of his special palace 4. The presence of some suspicious men in the crowd, 5. Hamid Reza Pahlavi's action on encouraging people to protect and preserve the home of Dr. Mossadeq, 6. Abort actions of Ala in reconciliation of the Prime Minister and the court, Mossadegh's action to humiliate and weaken the monarchy thereafter [AA 7533-32-13] (Page 1) http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2313&img_cat=142&img_type=1

9 - Note by the Minister of court, Hussein Ala on Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's leaving for abroad on 28th February and his actions on the following points: 1. His attempt to conceal the news of this trip, 2. Ambiguous answer to the U.S. ambassador on the king's travel news, 3. The Shah's surprise at the parade in front of his special palace 4. The presence of some suspicious men in the crowd, 5. Hamid Reza Pahlavi's action on encouraging people to protect and preserve the home of Dr. Mossadeq, 6. Abort actions of Ala in reconciliation of the Prime Minister and the court, Mossadeq's action to humiliate and weaken the monarchy thereafter [AA 7533-32-14] (Page 2) http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2314&img_cat=142&img_type=1

10 - Note by the Minister of court, Hussein Ala on Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's leaving for abroad on 28th February and his actions on the following points: 1. His attempt to conceal the news of this trip, 2. Ambiguous answer to the U.S. ambassador on the king's travel news, 3. The Shah's surprise at the parade in front of his special palace 4. The presence of some suspicious men in the crowd, 5. Hamid Reza Pahlavi's action on encouraging people to protect and preserve the home of Dr. Mossadeq, 6. Abort actions of Ala in reconciliation of the Prime Minister and the court, Mossadeq's action to humiliate and weaken the monarchy thereafter [3872/3] (Page 3) http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2315&img_cat=142&img_type=1

11 - Note by the Minister of court, Hussein Ala on Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's leaving for abroad on 28th February and his actions on the following points: 1. His attempt to conceal the news of this trip, 2. Ambiguous answer to the U.S. ambassador on the king's travel news, 3. The Shah's surprise at the parade in front of his special palace 4. The presence of some suspicious men in the crowd, 5. Hamid Reza Pahlavi's action on encouraging people to protect and preserve the home of Dr. Mossadeq, 6. Abort actions of Ala in reconciliation of the Prime Minister and the court, Mossadeq's action to humiliate and weaken the monarchy thereafter [AA 7533-32-13] (Page 4) http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2316&img_cat=142&img_type=1

12 - Letter of the Speaker of Majliss, Seyyed Abolqassem Kashani to the Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh requesting him to issue orders to the police to prevent people from gathering in the courtyard of Parliament and Baharestan Square and not to create tension and make insult to the representatives [M 144-31-91] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2317&img_cat=142&img_type=1

13 - Mohammad Reza Shah's decree: appointment of the Prime Minister Fazlollah Zahedi [M 288-181] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2318&img_cat=142&img_type=1

14 - News of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his queen Sorrayya's travel from Ramsar to Baghdad [AA 113¬32-20] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2319&img_cat=142&img_type=1

15 - Letter by the members of Isfahan Association of Journalists to the Prime Minister, expressing their disgust upon 16th August coup and requesting their immediate trial and execution [A 6133-324] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2320&img_cat=142&img_type=1

16 - Copy of a telegram by Brigadier Khatami congratulating Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh on the occasion of 16th August coup failure [AA 793-324-2] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2321&img_cat=142&img_type=1

17 - Copy of a telegram by Ahmed Nakhichevan to the Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq expressing his hatred of conspiracy and treacherous coup of 16th August [AA 794-324-1] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2322&img_cat=142&img_type=1

18 - Letter to Dr. Mossadegh by Ayatollah Kashani about the possibility of a coup attempt [M288-185-39] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2323&img_cat=142&img_type=1

19 - Letter by Prime Minister, Gen. Fazlloah Zahedi to Royal Guard on the necessity for the dispatch of two groups from an independent part of a military guard to the governor to strengthen security forces in the city [Z 114-325-11] http://iichs.org/index_en.asp?id=2324&img_cat=142&img_type=1

Source: The Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies (IICHS)
http://www.iichs.org

Link For Further Reading: CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup

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