30 Tir Uprising: Mossadegh or Death!

Friday, July 15, 2016

On 16 July 1952, during the royal approval of his new cabinet, Mosaddegh insisted on the constitutional prerogative of the Prime Minister to name a Minister of War and the Chief of Staff, something the Shah had done hitherto.

The Shah refused, and Mosaddegh announced his resignation appealing directly to the public for support, pronouncing that "in the present situation, the struggle started by the Iranian people cannot be brought to a victorious conclusion".

Mosaddegh resigned and Ahmad Qavam (also known as Ghavamossaltaneh) was presented to Majlis as the new Prime Minister on July, 18, 1952.

Veteran politician Ghavamossaltaneh was appointed as Iran's new Prime Minister. On the day of his appointment, he announced his intention to resume negotiations with the British to end the oil dispute, a reversal of Mosaddegh's policy.

The National Front — along with various Nationalist, Islamist, and socialist parties and groups — including Tudeh — responded by calling for protests, strikes and mass demonstrations in favor of Mosaddegh.

Major strikes broke out in all of Iran's major towns, with the Bazaar closing down in Tehran. Over 250 demonstrators in Tehran, Hamadan, Ahvaz, Isfahan, and Kermanshah were killed or suffered serious injuries.

National and religious leaders called for resistance against the martial law and soon factories and offices were closed and people poured into the streets on July, 21st.

Violent clashes between people and armed forces left many killed and injured but led to Shah's stepping back and dismissing Ghavamossaltaneh after 4 days as Prime Minister.

After five days of mass demonstrations on Siyeh-i Tir (the 30th of Tir on the ranian calendar), military commanders ordered their troops back to barracks, fearful of overstraining the enlisted men's loyalty and left Tehran in the hands of the protesters.

Frightened by the unrest, Shah dismissed Qavam and re-appointed Mosaddegh, granting him the full control of the military he had previously demanded.

Mosaddegh was reassigned as prime minister followed by a major blow to the British as the international courts refused their cases against Iran's government thus leading to Nationalization of Oil industry in Iran.

This marked the end of Ghavamossaltaneh's political life. He was dismissed and Majlis approved a bill confiscating his properties. He lived in hiding for almost one year as he was aware that the tensions he had created could easily cost him his life.

After the coup in August 1953, charges against Ghavamossaltaneh were dropped. He lived for two more years and died on July, 23, 1955.